Neocolonialism Legal Definition

“Neocolonialism”. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/neocolonialism. Retrieved 23 November 2022. Criticism of postcolonialism/neocolonialism can be found in literary theory. International relations theory defined “postcolonialism” as a field of research. While the lasting effects of cultural colonialism are of central interest, the intellectual precursors of the cultural critique of neocolonialism are economic in nature. Critical international relations theory refers to neocolonialism from Marxist and postpositivist positions, including postmodernist, postcolonial, and feminist approaches. These differ from both realism and liberalism in their epistemological and ontological premises. The neoliberal approach tends to portray modern forms of colonialism as benevolent imperialism. [ref. necessary] Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article on neocolonialism Colonialism is the direct control of a territory and its people through governance, and it is usually violent. Meanwhile, neocolonialism is more subtle.

Instead of direct control, neocolonialism maintains financial systems of indirect exploitation. In a broader sense, neocolonial governance is seen as an indirect form of control and, in particular, through the economic, financial and trade policies of transnational corporations and global and multilateral institutions. Critics argue that neocolonialism works through the investments of multinational corporations that, while enriching some in underdeveloped countries, keep those countries as a whole in a situation of dependency; Such investments also serve to cultivate underdeveloped countries as a reservoir of cheap labor and raw materials. International financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are also often accused of engaging in neocolonialism by providing loans (as well as other forms of economic assistance) that depend on recipient countries taking measures favourable to the countries they represent, but which harm their own economies. While many see these businesses and institutions as part of an essentially new world order, the notion of neocolonialism highlights what constitutes the continuity between the present and the past in this system and constellation of powers. See also dependency theory. There are many contemporary examples of persistent neocolonialism. During World War II, the United States helped overthrow many Nazi and Japanese imperial puppet regimes. Examples include diets in the Philippines, Korea, eastern China and much of Europe.

The armed forces of the United States were also instrumental in ending the reign of Adolf Hitler over Germany and Benito Mussolini over Italy. In 1945, after World War II, the United States ratified the Charter of the United Nations,[67] the pre-eminent document of international law[68] legally binding the U.S. government by the provisions of the Charter, including Article 2(4), which prohibits the threat or use of force in international relations except in very limited circumstances. [69] Therefore, any legal claim made by a foreign power to justify regime change is a particularly heavy burden. [70] The superpowers of the Cold War competed with neocolonialism. Modern superpowers such as China and the United States also continue to practice neocolonialism. American neocolonialism is supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. China is committed to neocolonialism through its massive Belt and Road Initiative, which has invested in 147 countries. The government of Niue has tried to regain access to its .nu domain name.

[125] The state signed a contract in 1999 with a Massachusetts-based non-profit organization that assigned rights to the domain name. The administration of the domain name has now been transferred to a Swedish organization. The Niue government is currently fighting on two fronts to regain control of its domain name, including with ICANN. [126] Toke Talagi, the longtime prime minister of Niue who died in 2020, called it a form of neocolonialism. [127] The term neocolonialism was originally applied to European policies seen as plans to maintain control over African and other dependencies. The event that marked the beginning of this use was a meeting of European leaders in Paris in 1957, at which six European leaders agreed to include their overseas territories in the European Common Market in trade agreements considered by some national leaders and groups as a new form of economic domination over French-occupied Africa and Italian colonial territories. Belgium and the Netherlands.